Iraq Afghanistan Egypt (Bright Star) United States Department of Defense

Afghanistan
Home Major Focus Areas Protecting Cultural Property Iraq Laws, Treaties & Enforcement Test Your Knowledge
Iraq
History & Culture
Rediscovering the Past
Significant Sites
Iraq Cultural Property Law, 2002
The Impact of War on Iraq's Cultural Heritage







010. Baghdad - Abu Hanifa Shrine




The capital of Iraq and of the Baghdad Governorate, Baghdad is the largest city in Iraq, the second-largest city in the Arab world (after Cairo) and the second-largest city in SW Asia (after Tehran). Located on the Tigris River, the city dates back to pre-Islamic times. Read a synopsis of the city's history here.

Most of the important historical landmarks in or near Baghdad are named after past political or religious figures (Sunni or Shi'a) or are associated with events in history of the city or the history of Islam that can make these monuments high-value targets.

Monuments standing as of 07/04/07:




Abu Hanifa Shrine

Date: circa 767
Location: Adhamiya district of Baghdad

     

The Abu Hanifa Shrine is sometimes claimed to be the largest Sunni mosque in Iraq. The site is named after Al-Imam al-A'zam Muhammad Nu’man bin Thabit bin Zuta bin Maah (699-767 AD), an Islamic reformer who revitalized Islam during the 8th century and is buried at this mosque.

Site assessment:
The Mosque's Minaret was reportedly hit by a U.S. rocket on April 11, 2003. See photos of the Abu Hanifa Minaret at cpt.org.

On November 23, 2006, the mosque's dome were damaged by a mortar barrage in what was described as a reprisal attack one day after a series of blasts and mortars had killed more than 200 Shi'ites.


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Brief History of Baghdad: The city of Baghdad is often said to have been founded on the west bank of the Tigris on 30 July 762 by the Abbasid dynasty, led by caliph al-Mansur; however, a city of Baghdad is mentioned in various pre-Islamic texts, including the Talmud, and the Abbasid city we know today was likely built on the site of this earlier settlement. The city's name is a Middle Persian compound: Bhaga "god" + dād "given", translating to "god-given" or "God's gift".

As it grew, Baghdad quickly outshone Ctesiphon, the capital of the Persian Empire [located 30 kilometers (20 miles) to the southeast], which had been under Muslim control since 637 and was eventually deserted in favor of Baghdad, just as Babylon, which lies some 90 kilometers (55 miles) to the south, had been deserted during the 2nd century BC.

The city of Baghdad was designed as a circle approximately two kilometers in diameter, later known as the "Round City". The original plan shows a ring of residential and commercial structures along the inside of the city walls, but the final construction added another ring, inside the first. In the center of the city lay the mosque, as well as headquarters for guards. The purpose or use of the remaining space in the center is unknown. The circular design of the city was a direct reflection of the traditional Persian Sasanian urban design. The ancient Sasanian city of Gur/Firouzabad is nearly identical in its general circular design, radiating avenues, and government buildings and temples situated at the center of the city. The two designers hired by al-Mansur to plan the city were Naubakht, a former Persian Zoroastrian who also determined that the date of the foundation of the city would be astrologically auspicious, and Mashallah, a Jew from Khorasan, Iran.

Center of Learning (8th - 9th c.). Within a generation of its founding, Baghdad became a hub of learning and commerce and principal engine behind the Islamic Golden Age. The House of Wisdom was an establishment dedicated to the translation of Greek, Middle Persian and Syriac works. The Barmakids were influential in bringing scholars from the nearby Academy of Gundishapur, facilitating the introduction of Greek and Indian science into the Arabic world. Baghdad was likely the largest city in the world from shortly after its foundation until the 930s, when its only possible rival was Córdova. Various estimates suggest that the city contained more than a million inhabitants at this time. Many of Scheherazade's tales in "One Thousand and One Nights" are set in Baghdad during this period.

Stagnation and Invasion (10th to 16th c.). By the 10th century, Baghdad's early meteoric growth slowed due to troubles within the Caliphate, including relocations of the capital to Samarra (during 808–819 and 836–892), the loss of the western and easternmost provinces, and periods of political domination by the Iranian Buwayhids (945–1055) and Seljuk Turks (1055–1135). Even so, the Baghdad remained one of the cultural and commercial hubs of the Islamic world until February 10, 1258, the day that Hulagu Khan and his Mongol army invaded and sacked the city. The Mongols killed or scattered most of the city's inhabitants, including the Abbasid Caliph Al-Musta'sim, and destroyed large sections of the city, including the canals and dykes that comprised the city's irrigation system. The sack of Baghdad put an end to the Abbasid Caliphate — a blow from which the Islamic civilization never fully recovered — and placed the city under the rule of the. the Il-Khanids, the Mongol emperors in Iran. Sacked again by Timur ("Tamerlane") in 1401, Baghdad became a provincial capital controlled by the Jalayirid (1400–1411), Qara Quyunlu (1411–1469), Aq Quyunlu (1469–1508), and Safavid (1508–1534) dynasties.

Ottoman Baghdad (16th to 19th c.). In 1534, Baghdad was conquered by the Ottoman Turks. Under the Ottomans, Baghdad fell into a period of decline, partially as a result of the enmity between its rulers and Persia. For a time, Baghdad had been the largest city in the Middle East before being overtaken by Constantinople in the 16th century.

Modern Baghdad (20th c.). 
The city remained under Ottoman control until the establishment of the kingdom of Iraq by the British in 1921. British control was maintained by systematic suppression of Iraqi Arab and Kurdish national aspirations until 1932, when Iraq was given formal independence and increased autonomy in 1946. Not until 1958 did the Iraqi Army final depose the grandson of the British-installed monarch, Faisal II. A subsequent coup in 1968 brought the revolutionary Ba'ath Party to power and, with it, a new face that transformed the city of Baghdad for better and for worse: Saddam Hussein. During the early 1970s, serving as vice president under the ailing General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, Saddam spearheaded Iraq's nationaliztion fo the Western-owned Iraq Petroleum Company, which had long held a monopoly on the country's oil. As a result, Baghdad experienced a brief period of prosperity and growth fueled the sharp increase in oil revenue; at the same time, Saddam cemented his authority over the armed forced and the government. Baghdad fell on hard times during the Iran-Iraq War (1980-88) and declined even further in the aftermath of the 1990 invasion of Kuwait, the Desert Storm Campaign, and the imposition of a no-fly zone over most of the country, followed by ten years of UN sanctions. Baghdad's transportation, power, sanitary infrastructure and cultural monuments suffered. And as the flow of illicit artifacts (cunieform tablets, cylinder seals, aramaic bowls, etc.) out of Iraq bound for dealers and collectors in the West indicated, the looting of archaeological sites in Iraq escalated during the 1990s, despite the fact that perpetrators who were caught faced probable execution.

2003 - Operation Iraqi Freedom. Baghdad was bombed during March and April during the initial phase of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. As the city fell under US control between April 7 and April 9, widespread looting began. The Iraq National Museum was looted (April 10-13) of more than 15,000 artifacts (some 7,000 remain unaccounted for) and the National Archive was burned, destroying thousands of ancient manuscripts. The Coalition Provisional Authority established a three-square-mile (eight-square-kilometer) "Green Zone" within the heart of the city from which it governed Iraq until a new Iraqi government bould be established. The CPA ceded power to the interim government and dissolved itself at the end of June 2004. Meanwhile, the city's cultural monuments, included its many ancient mosques and madrasas, have been targeted by insurgents or suffered collateral damage or been used for military purposes such as bomb making, thus exposing these sites to constant peril.

As turmoil in the city continues, all reasonable steps must be taken to protect Baghdad's historical monuments and archaeological, religious and cultural sites.

 

Latitude
  33° 19' 30.00"
 
  33.324999971° N
Longitude
  44° 25′ 19.2″
  44.422° E
   
UTM x
  446204.1100835514
UTM y
  3687466.492998229
Zone
  38N
   
MGRS
  38SMM4620487466
   

Baghdad Map
         
Click to view a map of Baghdad



Click to view a GoogleEarth satellite view of Baghdad (external resource)