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016. Baghdad -
Haydar-Khana Mosque

The capital of Iraq and of the Baghdad Governorate, Baghdad is the largest city in Iraq, the second-largest city in the Arab world (after Cairo) and the second-largest city in SW Asia (after Tehran). Located on the Tigris River, the city dates back to pre-Islamic times. Read a synopsis of the city's history here.

Most of the important historical landmarks in or near Baghdad are named after past political or religious figures (Sunni or Shi'a) or are associated with events in history of the city or the history of Islam that can make these monuments high-value targets.

Monuments standing as of 07/04/07:

Haydar-Khana Mosque

Variant Names: Haydarkhana Mosque (Haydar Khana, Haydar Khaneh, Haydar-Khaneh, al-Haydar Khaneh)

Location: Maydan, al-Rusafah, East Baghdad
Date: 1826, Ottoman period

Bombed (partially damaged): March 5, 2007

Al-Haydar Khana Mosque is a popular Shi'a place of worship in Baghdad's eastern neighborhood, al Rusafah, on Rashid Street.

The Archnet Digital Library describes the Haydar-Khana Mosque in Baghdad in the following manner: "According to an inscription over the main entrance, it was built in 1826 by Dawud, the Pasha of Baghdad. First restored in 1893, additional works were carried out on the minaret and the main façade in 1920. Although small in scale, the building is considered one of the finest examples of Ottoman constructions in Baghdad from the last century, appreciated for its harmonious proportions.

The main building of the mosque, built from brick, opens onto a courtyard framed on three sides with walls. The qibla wall is part of the fourth side and faces onto the street. The street wall is built of modular blind pointed arches decorated with hazarbaf motif and toped from the outside with a calligraphy band in kashi blue and gold tiles. At its western end, an iwan gate breaks the rhythm, forming the main access to the mosque.

The main building, within the courtyard, has a symmetrical rectangular plan divided into there parts: the musalla or prayer hall, the portico preceding it and the minaret at the side. It is decorated from three sides with kashi blue tiles. The prayer hall is reached from the courtyard through a portico located north and accessed by three pointed arches. The central one is an iwan gate with a pointed semi-dome decorated with muquarnas; it is the widest and thus constitutes the main access to the building. The arch is inscribed in a rectangular frame covered with tile decoration and surmounted with an inscription band. A lower pointed arch within the large iwan gate is toped by the founder's inscription. The portico is thus supported on four massive piers and toped by five domes, three of which are larger and aligned with the access points. On the piers, blind arches are decorated with hazarbaf brickwork motif.

The prayer hall (musalla) lies behind the portico and is accessed by three arches aligned with the outer ones. The space is divided in three parts. The central one is covered with a big dome on squinches. It sits on a drum punctured by eight windows lighting the space underneath. It is high enough to be seen from the street, covered with intricate floral motifs and inscriptions executed in kashi blue tiles. From the inside, below the windows runs a band of calligraphy.

The two side rooms, much smaller is size, are set in the shape of two aisles perpendicular to the qibla wall. They communicate on their longest side with the main prayer hall through three arched openings, and from their shortest side with the outside portico. These side rooms are covered with three domes; the central one high on a drum is equal in size to the three above the portico. The mihrab is located below the big dome in the central praying hall facing the entrance. It has a pointed niche with a muquarnas semi-dome. It is set in a rectangular tiled frame decorated with floral motifs and toped with an inscription band. The minbar to the right side displays elegant curvilinear decoration and is covered by a pointed dome supported on four small columns. The inside walls are entirely covered with white plaster; the muquarnas on arched openings are emphasized with black paint defining their edges.

From each side of the building, three minor doors constitute entrance points to the prayer hall. A fourth module accesses the portico. They are surmounted by windows and set within elongated narrow arches spanning the height of the building.

Inscribed to the main building mass, at the right end of the portico is the minaret covered with kashi tiles. Its octagonal base is only apparent from the western side, the remaining being absorbed by the main volume. It has a circular shaft rising above the building. It is decorated with spiral bands of kufic calligraphy toped by three horizontal bands of inscriptions. The balcony supported by three rows of tiled muquarnas lies below a ribbed dome."

Source: ArchNet

See also: Strika V., Khalil J. 1987. The Islamic Architecture of Baghdad. Napoli: Instituto Universitario Orientale, 59-60.

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Brief History of Baghdad: The city of Baghdad is often said to have been founded on the west bank of the Tigris on 30 July 762 by the Abbasid dynasty, led by caliph al-Mansur; however, a city of Baghdad is mentioned in various pre-Islamic texts, including the Talmud, and the Abbasid city we know today was likely built on the site of this earlier settlement. The city's name is a Middle Persian compound: Bhaga "god" + dād "given", translating to "god-given" or "God's gift".

As it grew, Baghdad quickly outshone Ctesiphon, the capital of the Persian Empire [located 30 kilometers (20 miles) to the southeast], which had been under Muslim control since 637 and was eventually deserted in favor of Baghdad, just as Babylon, which lies some 90 kilometers (55 miles) to the south, had been deserted during the 2nd century BC.

The city of Baghdad was designed as a circle approximately two kilometers in diameter, later known as the "Round City". The original plan shows a ring of residential and commercial structures along the inside of the city walls, but the final construction added another ring, inside the first. In the center of the city lay the mosque, as well as headquarters for guards. The purpose or use of the remaining space in the center is unknown. The circular design of the city was a direct reflection of the traditional Persian Sasanian urban design. The ancient Sasanian city of Gur/Firouzabad is nearly identical in its general circular design, radiating avenues, and government buildings and temples situated at the center of the city. The two designers hired by al-Mansur to plan the city were Naubakht, a former Persian Zoroastrian who also determined that the date of the foundation of the city would be astrologically auspicious, and Mashallah, a Jew from Khorasan, Iran.

Center of Learning (8th - 9th c.). Within a generation of its founding, Baghdad became a hub of learning and commerce and principal engine behind the Islamic Golden Age. The House of Wisdom was an establishment dedicated to the translation of Greek, Middle Persian and Syriac works. The Barmakids were influential in bringing scholars from the nearby Academy of Gundishapur, facilitating the introduction of Greek and Indian science into the Arabic world. Baghdad was likely the largest city in the world from shortly after its foundation until the 930s, when its only possible rival was Córdova. Various estimates suggest that the city contained more than a million inhabitants at this time. Many of Scheherazade's tales in "One Thousand and One Nights" are set in Baghdad during this period.

Stagnation and Invasion (10th to 16th c.). By the 10th century, Baghdad's early meteoric growth slowed due to troubles within the Caliphate, including relocations of the capital to Samarra (during 808–819 and 836–892), the loss of the western and easternmost provinces, and periods of political domination by the Iranian Buwayhids (945–1055) and Seljuk Turks (1055–1135). Even so, the Baghdad remained one of the cultural and commercial hubs of the Islamic world until February 10, 1258, the day that Hulagu Khan and his Mongol army invaded and sacked the city. The Mongols killed or scattered most of the city's inhabitants, including the Abbasid Caliph Al-Musta'sim, and destroyed large sections of the city, including the canals and dykes that comprised the city's irrigation system. The sack of Baghdad put an end to the Abbasid Caliphate — a blow from which the Islamic civilization never fully recovered — and placed the city under the rule of the. the Il-Khanids, the Mongol emperors in Iran. Sacked again by Timur ("Tamerlane") in 1401, Baghdad became a provincial capital controlled by the Jalayirid (1400–1411), Qara Quyunlu (1411–1469), Aq Quyunlu (1469–1508), and Safavid (1508–1534) dynasties.

Ottoman Baghdad (16th to 19th c.). In 1534, Baghdad was conquered by the Ottoman Turks. Under the Ottomans, Baghdad fell into a period of decline, partially as a result of the enmity between its rulers and Persia. For a time, Baghdad had been the largest city in the Middle East before being overtaken by Constantinople in the 16th century.

Modern Baghdad (20th c.). The city remained under Ottoman control until the establishment of the kingdom of Iraq by the British in 1921. British control was maintained by systematic suppression of Iraqi Arab and Kurdish national aspirations until 1932, when Iraq was given formal independence and increased autonomy in 1946. Not until 1958 did the Iraqi Army final depose the grandson of the British-installed monarch, Faisal II. A subsequent coup in 1968 brought the revolutionary Ba'ath Party to power and, with it, a new face that transformed the city of Baghdad for better and for worse: Saddam Hussein. During the early 1970s, serving as vice president under the ailing General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr, Saddam spearheaded Iraq's nationaliztion fo the Western-owned Iraq Petroleum Company, which had long held a monopoly on the country's oil. As a result, Baghdad experienced a brief period of prosperity and growth fueled the sharp increase in oil revenue; at the same time, Saddam cemented his authority over the armed forced and the government. Baghdad fell on hard times during the Iran-Iraq War (1980-88) and declined even further in the aftermath of the 1990 invasion of Kuwait, the Desert Storm Campaign, and the imposition of a no-fly zone over most of the country, followed by ten years of UN sanctions. Baghdad's transportation, power, sanitary infrastructure and cultural monuments suffered. And as the flow of illicit artifacts (cunieform tablets, cylinder seals, aramaic bowls, etc.) out of Iraq bound for dealers and collectors in the West indicated, the looting of archaeological sites in Iraq escalated during the 1990s, despite the fact that perpetrators who were caught faced probable execution.

2003 - Operation Iraqi Freedom. Baghdad was bombed during March and April during the initial phase of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. As the city fell under US control between April 7 and April 9, widespread looting began. The Iraq National Museum was looted (April 10-13) of more than 15,000 artifacts (some 7,000 remain unaccounted for) and the National Archive was burned, destroying thousands of ancient manuscripts. The Coalition Provisional Authority established a three-square-mile (eight-square -kilometer) "Green Zone" within the heart of the city from which it governed Iraq until a new Iraqi government bould be established. The CPA ceded power to the interim government and dissolved itself at the end of June 2004. Meanwhile, the city's cultural monuments, included its many ancient mosques and madrasas, have been targeted by insurgents or suffered collateral damage or been used for military purposes such as bomb making, thus exposing these sites to constant peril.

As turmoil in the city continues, all reasonable steps must be taken to protect Baghdad's historical monuments and archaeological, religious and cultural sites.




  33° 19' 30.00"
  33.324999971° N
  44° 25′ 19.2″
  44.422° E

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